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How Far Do Sneezes and Vomit Travel?

Germs can travel way farther than you might think.
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William Firth Well’s sneeze powder experiments:
http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=273913

Bourouiba, L., Dehandschoewercker, E., Bush, J.W.M (2014). Violent expiratory events: on coughing and sneezing. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 745, 537-563. doi:10.1017/jfm.2014.88
https://lbourouiba.mit.edu/sites/default/files/documents/14BourouibaBush-sneezecloudJFM_corrected.pdf

For additional information about the study of respiratory disease transmission via sneezes and its fluid dynamics please visit the MIT Fluid Dynamics of Disease Transmission Laboratory of Prof. Lydia Bourouiba
http://lbourouiba.mit.edu/

Vomiting Larry – A demonstration and explanation from his creator:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sLDSNvQjXe8

Makison Booth, C. (2014). Vomiting Larry: a simulated vomiting system for assessing environmental contamination from projectile vomiting related to norovirus infection. Journal of Infection Prevention, 15(5), 176–180. http://doi.org/10.1177/1757177414545390:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4230971/

To learn more about Vomiting Larry—and lots of other cool projects—visit the UK’s Health and Safety Laboratory site:
http://www.hsl.gov.uk

Tung-Thompson, G., Libera, D.A., Koch, K.L., de los Reyes, F.L. III, Jaykus, L-A. (2015) Aerosolization of a Human Norovirus Surrogate, Bacteriophage MS2, during Simulated Vomiting. PLoS ONE 10(8): e0134277. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0134277:
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0134277

The Vomiting Machine
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jGvqb87DXSI


Host, Producer, Editor, Animator, Additional Research
Anna Rothschild

Researcher, Writer
Elizabeth Preston

DP, Sound, Additional Research
Ceri Riley

Ragtime Piano
Music Provided by APM

©WGBH Educational Foundation 2015

IMAGES AND FOOTAGE

Fred Ott Sneeze (Edison Kinetoscopic Record of a Sneeze)
William K.L. Dickson

Coughs and Sneezes
Public Information Films, National Health Service UK

High Speed Footage of Sneezing
Courtesy Prof. Lydia Bourouiba
http://bit.ly/1QeeVCl

Welcome Back To School
Pond5/spidey888777

Fan Turbine Behind A Dark Surface
Pond5/maddrat

Vomiting Larry – A demonstration and explanation for his creator
Courtesy Health and Safety Laboratory and Dr. Catherine Makison-Booth
http://bit.ly/1HhAEXc

Norovirus EM PHIL 2172 lores
Wikimedia Commons/CDC

Vomiting Machine Face
Grace Tung-Thompson

Fig 2. Photo of a Simulated Vomiting Episode.
Tung-Thompson et al. 2015

Vomiting Machine Whole Thing
Grace Tung-Thompson

Norovirus 4
Wikimedia Commons/Graham Beards

SFX

Cockroaches
Freesound/StateAardvark­
(used with permission from author)

Squeak Pack/squeak_10
Freesound/Corsica_S

Produced by WGBH for PBS Digital Studios

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